One of the defendants removing a state court class action under CAFA argued that the local controversy exception did not apply due to the filing of a previous class action alleging similar facts against one or more of the defendants during the preceding 3-year period. The Fifth Circuit found that a class arbitration is not a class action, and, consequently, a prior class arbitration does not frustrate the CAFA exception. Williams v. Homeland Insurance Co., 657 F.3d 287 (5th Cir. 2011).